About Us - Geyser Observation and Study Association
GOSA Store
Geyser Observation and Study Association - Transactions


Geysers of the World   

Geysers of Yellowstone   



Transactions VI

A Photo Display

  • Rick Hutchinson
  • Grand Geyser
  • Opal Pool
  • Artemesia Geyser
  • Monarch Geyser
  • Fountain Geyser
  • Drain Geyser
  • Ledge Geyser
  • Unnamed Geyser erupting from a vent in Deep Blue Geyser's basin
  • Atomizer Geyser
  • Fan and Mortar Geysers
  • Jewel Geyser
  • Splendid Geyser
  • Bronze Spring
  • Dark Cavern Geyser
  • Pink Cone Geyser
  • Big Cub Geyser
  • Morning Geyser
  • Pebble Spring
  • Unnamed Geyser by Ragged Spring
  • Spa Geyser
  • "Collapse" Geyser
  • Giantess Geyser

Patterns in the intervals between eruptions of Giantess Geyser

H. Koenig

Abstract: During the early 1980s, Giantess Geyser erupted about once a week. After the Borah Peak earthquake of 1983, it reverted to its historical activity of infrequent eruptions. Before the earthquake, there was a pronounced tendency for longer intervals to result in strong, steam-phase eruptions, while short intervals tended to be aborted eruptions. Since the earthquake, there have been series of from one to three eruptions a few weeks apart, with several months to a year between the starts of series.

Pre-Eruptive Behavior of Oblong Geyser

Carl M. Bender and Daniel E. Bender

Abstract: This paper details a preliminary study of the pre-eruptive patterns of Oblong Geyser. Its purpose is to describe those patterns indicative of an eruption, and to propose a methodology for studying Oblong in the future.

Probabilistic Geyser Gazing: Sprinkler Geyser, 1992-1995
Castle Group, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

Gordon Bower

Abstract: Historical reports characterize Sprinkler geyser as a frequent but erratic performer. Observations in recent years have shown its eruption pattern to be regular and have revealed an annual increase and decrease in the level of activity. Two common statistical approaches to geyser study are applied to Sprinkler data and compared with more traditional methods.

The Rotorua Geothermal Field, New Zealand
Geysers in New Zealand

Ashley Cody

Introduction: Prior to the Wairakei geothermal power station and Ohakuri hydroelectric dam construction in the late 1950s, New Zealand had about 240 geysers. However, by the late 1960s only 40 some of these remained. These losses were directly attributed to human activity, most notable being the building of a geothermal power station at Wairakei 90 kms south of Rotorua, where approximately 90 geysers were lost by flooding. In the late 1980s Ohaaki power station was commissioned and one year after, no geysers or flowing alkaline hot springs remained there either.

At Taupo, the Waikato River channel was blasted in the 1950s to facilitate flows, which coincided with the cessation of all geyser activity at Taupo/Spa, along the riverside. At lake Rotomahana, the 1886 AD eruption of Mount Tarawera totally destroyed the Pink and White Terraces, but created the totally new geothermal system of Waimangu Valley; the only geothermal system worldwide created in historical records.

Today six geysers remain at Waiotapu; several to Waimangu and Rotomahana; a few at Ketetahi (on the northern slopes of Mount Tongariro); at least 26 at Orakeikorako; and 15 at Rotorua.

Massive Regular Bubble Production by Botryoidal Spring During August 1996

Jack Hobart

Abstract: A series of shallow earthquakes beneath the White Creek area of Lower Geyser Basin energized Botryoidal Spring into a new mode of eruption in which regular eruptions were initiated by spectacular masses of bubbles and textured surface formations in the rising water column. This offered an unprecedented opportunity to observe this rare manifestation of surface tension effects in a geyser eruption. Observed eruptions were extremely regular and much larger than previously noted for this geyser. Many photos were obtained showing a wide variety of eruptive forms even though the observing session was quite brief.

The Location of Oblique Geyser

H. Koenig

Abstract: Oblique Geyser was located in the Gibbon Canyon, and was named in passing by A.C. Peale in 1878. Since that time, the location of that geyser has been lost. The name itself was then applied to another geyser in the Geyser Creek area, and the name forgotten. Finally, it was resurrected and is now being imposed on the wrong geyser. This report details how this came to happen.

Notes of "Pocket Basin Geyser"

Mike Keller

Abstract: The following is a report on the extreme variability of "Pocket Basin Geyser," and what one might expect in the attempt to view its eruptions.

"A Pronounced Weakness for Geysers": Early Geyser Gazers in Yellowstone

Lee Whittlesey

Abstract: The term "geyser gazer" is a more modern invention, but Yellowstone's "geyser gazers" have existed as long as there was a national park, and perhaps even before there was a park. The following paper attempts to highlight a few of the more interesting geyser gazers of earlier times.

The View From Fountain Overlook July and August 1994

David Starck

Abstract: A number of theories concerning the inter-relationships among the geysers of the Fountain Group have been proposed over the years. This is an attempt to find which relationships were dependable -- at least during a few weeks in the summer of 1994.

Beehive's Indicator Geyser The "False Indicator" Series of Early July 1994

T. Scott Bryan

Abstract: Beehive's Indicator underwent its second known episode of frequent and regular eruptions without consequent play by Beehive Geyser. The start of this series and its relationship to eruptions by Dome Geyser and Giantess Geyser is briefly described.

Pyramid Geyser
Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park
September-October 1995
September-October 1996

Ralph C. Taylor

Abstract: This report describes the activity of Pyramid Geyser, located near Daisy Geyser in the Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park. The report briefly describes and classifies the observed activity. The activity of Pyramid Geyser was studied by periods of on-site observation and two weeks of recorded geyser activity during each year of the study using a temperature monitor.

The Explosive History of Wall Pool and Black Opal Pool in Biscuit Basin

Rocco Paperiello

Abstract: This paper is an effort to describe the successive episodes of explosive activity which opened up both Wall Pool and Black Opal Pool in Biscuit Basin during this century.

Jewel Geyser as the "New Handkerchief Pool"

No Abstract Given [Excerpts chronicling the interesting history of the use of this feature as a replacement for Handkerchief Pool.]

Sentinel Meadows and Flat Cone "Geyser"

Mike Keller

Abstract: Occasional eruptions of Flat Cone have been reported over the past decade. However, by the spring of 1992, Flat Cone Geyser became a regularly erupting feature. The area was visited on a number of occasions from May through October. This paper reports the activity of Flat Cone and other features.

Minor Eruptions by Castle Geyser
Interval and Duration Relationships, May 25-June 16 1995

T. Scott Bryan

Abstract: At no time on record in the past several decades did Castle Geyser undergo as many or as frequent minor eruptions as was the case in 1995. This presented the opportunity to check a number of stories about minor eruptions, and their intervals and durations as related to Castle's "normal" major activity. By and large, the stories are factual enough that with attention to the details of the activity, Castle remains one of the most predictable geysers in Yellowstone, even when so-called unpredictable minor action is common.

Discovery of the 1926 Old Faithful Nature Trail Manuscript and a Discussion of Its Implications for Hot Spring Research

Lee Whittlesey, Rocco Paperiello and Mike Keller

No Abstract Given [Descriptions of and excerpts from the 125 page manuscript, the history at the time, vintage photos, a map of the Myriad Group and many interesting references are included in this paper.

Recorded Observations of Thermal Activity at Shoshone Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park: 1988-1997

Jeff Cross

No Abstract Given [Details of observations by the author and others of many features at Shoshone Geyser Basin. Includes maps and photos.]

Excerpts from "A Vagabond in the Yellowstone," The Diary of Pat Quayle, September 4- October 14, 1915, (handwritten, 288pp.) YNP Archives

No Abstract Given [The author describes features seen under the surface of Shoshone Lake offshore from Shoshone Geyser Basin.]

Splendid Geyser in 1985 and 1986

T. Scott Bryan

Abstract: During the unprecedented eruptive activity by Splendid Geyser during 1985 and 1986, it proved impossible to predict when an active series would begin or how long it would last. Within a series, however, there were some clear patterns. This paper summarizes a number of aspects of this activity, and relates the findings to Splendid's activity of 1996.

Hillside Geyser at West Thumb

David Monteith

Abstract: Hillside Geyser at West Thumb Geyser Basin was active in the Fall of 1995. The following report describes the results of three days of observation of this geyser during late September 1995.

Giant Geyser

David Monteith

No abstract Given [A photo display of the September 25, 1995 Giant eruption.]

Observations of Flood Geyser in 1983 and 1984

H. Koenig and Tomas Vachuda

Abstract: During 1983 and 1984 eruption data was collected at Flood Geyser which showed a linear correlation between the duration of an eruption and the length of the following interval. There was also a possible tri-modal distribution of intervals and durations.

A Nonlinear Perspective on the Dynamics of Yellowstone's Plume Geyser

Kevin M. Short and Julie Knowles Raye

Abstract: In this paper we apply ideas of nonlinear dynamics to the time series of Plume eruption data collected by Heinrich Koenig in 1993. We note several well-known characteristic features of Plume's eruption behavior: intermittency effects, indicated by a tendency to cease erupting, or "sleep", for several hours each night; evidence of hysteresis, since eruptions "turn on" and "turn off" at different temperatures; and the "Giantess Effect" where eruption frequency increases and sleep periods disappear during eruptions of nearby Giantess Geyser. We provide an introduction to nonlinear analysis techniques and show how they can be useful in the analysis of the Plume time series. We then model the refill-reheat-erupt cycle of Plume with a non linear limit cycle which undergoes a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and develop a mechanism where the limit cycle is driven by a diurnal variation in temperature and the Geyser Hill Wave proposed by T. Scott Bryan. Finally, we show that this model can reproduce the characteristic intermittency and hysteresis exhibited by Plume, as well as the Giantess Effect. We also include a nonmathematical summary of our results in the Appendix.

Excursions to the Kamchatka Geysers

V.A. Droznin

Abstract: This paper serves as a brief introduction to the Kamchatka geyser basin. Included are explanations of geyser behavior, a description of significant features, and some results of recent studies related to the Kamchatka geysers.

Please note - this site is currently under constuction. Please visit for more information.  Last update 01-29-2017

Home | Contact GOSA | GOSA Store | About GOSA | Transactions | Geysers of the World | Geysers of Yellowstone

Facebook Page Google+ Page YouTube Channel
Designed and Hosted by: Computer Point

2006 COPYRIGHT© 1997-2017 GOSA
All images © 1999-2017. All rights reserved. No form of reproduction, including copying or saving of digital image files, or the alteration or manipulation of said image files, is authorized without written permission